Fat-soluble vitamins are vitamins A, D, E and K. To some extent, this vitamin is different from the water-soluble vitamins. This vitamin is contained in fat and oily part of food. These vitamins are digested by the bile only because it is not soluble in water. The following section provides a detailed description of each vitamin type.
It is difficult to determine the number requirement of vitamin A. This vitamin is produced from two different compounds that are converted in the body into vitamin A. In animal food sources, available in the form of retinol; in vegetable food sources are in the form of beta-carotene, which is less efficient than retinol for production of vitamin A. make This is the recommended amount of vitamin A given in the form of retinol equivalent, RE. The recommended amount of vitamin A is 1000 micro-grams per day for males and RE 800 micro-grams for women.
The main sources
Vegetables and fruits are vitamin A majority carriers. Most foods that contain vitamin A is a brightly colored (though not all bright-colored foods containing vitamin A). Vegetables are rich in vitamin A are carrots, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, spinach and cantaloupe. Milk, cheese, butter and eggs also contain vitamin A.
Vitamin A is important for the maintenance of the epithelial cells of cornea and vision. Vitamin A also helps the growth and reproduction of bones and teeth. In addition vitamin A also plays a role in the formation and regulation of hormones and helps protect the body against cancer.
Vitamin A deficiency can lead to serious consequences. This is usually accompanied by lack of protein and zinc minerals. Vitamin A can be stored in the body for a year. This means that the symptoms of deficiency does not appear immediately after the cessation of intake of this vitamin. However, if this is looked after long periods of time there is no consumption, the symptoms may be very clear and heavy.
One of the first symptom is night blindness. If the shortage continues, it can also play a role in decreasing the function of the cornea and cause blindness. This vitamin deficiency may also prevent bone growth, or cause changes in bone shape, forming cracks and damage to the teeth and sustained growth of tooth-forming cells. Anemia is caused by another. In addition, this deficiency affects the nervous system and bone, and can lead to paralysis.
Vitamin A toxicity occurs when the proteins that bind have been fulfilled so that free vitamin A can attack the body’s cells. This usually does not occur if the vitamin from food everyday, but this can happen if someone uses supplements. Symptoms are nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea and weight loss. Nervous system and muscles can also be affected, causing symptoms such as loss of appetite, irritability, fatigue, insomnia, anxiety, headaches and muscle weakness.
Vitamin D has a characteristic which distinguishes it from other vitamins which can be produced by sunlight. This means that vitamin D can be obtained with fixed sunlight on a regular basis, and does not need additional vitamin D. RDA for vitamin D is 5 micro-grams per day. Although the amount of vitamin D that is formed increases along the skin exposed to sunlight, but sunlight can not cause vitamin D to the level of poisoning.
Food sources of vitamin D are eggs, liver and fish, as well as milk and margarine are fortified with vitamin D.
Vitamin D works on bone mineralization by increasing the absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the digestive tract, so that levels in the blood increases. This is done by taking calcium from bones and by encouraging its storage by the kidney.
Causes of vitamin D deficiency with calcium deficiency symptoms. Bone can not be hardened in a way biasa.Tulang can be weakened as a result of heavy bent bone badan.Kekurangan vitamin D can also cause deformities and pain in his arm and leg, back, torax (chest) and pelvis. Vitamin D deficiency also damages the nervous system and muscles, causing muscle spasms.
Excess vitamin D causes increased concentration of calcium in the blood. Calcium can form kidney stones. High levels of calcium in the blood can also cause blood vessels to harden, very dangerous for the arteries to the heart and lungs and can be fatal. Additional symptoms of vitamin D toxicity are loss of appetite, headache, weakness, fatigue, excessive thirst, irritability and depressed.
RDA for vitamin E is 10 mg per day for men and 8 mg per day for women.
The main sources
Vitamin E is widely available in vegetables and oil seeds, which can be found in the form of margarine, salad dressing, and shortening. Peanut oil and bran oil has the highest concentration of vitamin E that. The next level of corn oil and sunflower seed oil. One tablespoon of this source contains more than the RDA of vitamin E. In contrast, animal fats such as butter and milk contain almost no vitamin E. This is because vitamin E can be easily damaged by heating, it would be better to get it from fresh food.
Like vitamin C, vitamin E is also an antioxidant. Vitamin E helps stabilize cell membranes, regulate and protect the oxidation of vitamin A. In its role as an antioxidant, vitamin E has a major influence on cells, such as red blood cells and white blood cells that pass through the lungs.
When levels of vitamin E in blood is very low, red blood cells can be divided. This process is called hemolysis eritrodit and can be avoided with vitamin E. Vitamin E deficiency can result in nervous system and muscles that cause weakness, difficulty walking and pain in the calf muscle.
Poisoning can occur if excessive consumption, but this does not easily occur as in vitamins A and D. The symptoms are headache, weakness, fatigue, dizziness and abnormal vision.
Most sources of vitamin K in the body is synthesized by bacteria in the digestive system. Sources of vitamin K in foods are liver, vegetables, leafy green vegetables like cabbage (cabbage) and milk.
The main sources
Digestive systems of humans contains bacteria that can synthesize vitamin K, which is partly absorbed and retained in the liver. The body needs to have the addition of vitamin K from foods.
Vitamin K is an essential requirement for the synthesis of several proteins including the clotting of blood. Vitamin K is also needed for bone formation.
If vitamin K is not contained in the body, blood can not clot. This can cause hemorrhagic disease. However, vitamin K deficiency is rare: only babies have it easy. This is because the digestive system of a newborn baby still sterile and do not contain bacteria that can synthesize vitamin K, breast milk contains only small amounts of vitamin K. For that babies are given a number of vitamin K at birth.