Water is the only essential beverage. It is contained in food but must also be provided by beverages. It represents 60 to 70% of body mass. It is a significant source of minerals and transports various substances in the body. There are several water whose mineral composition varies.
Soft drinks (sodas, lemonades, fruit juices, chocolate drinks) contain a quantity of sugar not negligible. For information: a glass of cola 25 cl contains the equivalent of 4 pieces of sugar or more. Some drinks have no sugar added, this does not mean they do not contain sugar but only the sugar content in fruit used. Drinks obtained directly from fruits are rich in vitamins.
Drinks are obtained either from the pressed fruit or from fruit concentrate, that is to say a powder of dried fruits which can then reconstruct a drink by adding water. These blended drinks are rich in sugars and intake of vitamins is necessary because they were destroyed during processing.
Drinks based on vegetables are often rich in vitamins. They come from the vegetable itself but can also be enriched.
Carbohydrates (or carbohydrates) are usually divided between sugars (monosaccharidas such as glucose, galactosa or fructose) and saccharides, which are polymers of sugars (polysaccharides). Disaccharidas (Disaccharide), such as sucrose or lactose, and polysaccharides (polysaccharides or polysaccharides) are part of the latter category. Only Monosaccharidas and disacharidas have a sweetness. Polysaccharides, like starch, are insipid.
- Monosaccharidas (simple sugars) are simple molecules, nonhydrolyzable, forming crystals.
- Aldoses are carbohydrates with an aldehyde function on the first carbon.
- Ketoses are carbohydrates with a ketone function on the second carbon.
- Sacharide (complex sugars), are hydrolysable polymers of monosaccharides linked by a saccharide.
Holosidas are polymers of only dare :
- Oligoholosidas (oligosaccharidas) are an index of polymerization less than 10.
- Polysaccharides (polysaccharides) have an index of polymerization greater than 10 (eg amylose, amylopectin, cellulose, glycogen).
- Homopolyosides are carbohydrates whose hydrolysis gives only one kind of dare.
- Heteropolyosidas are carbohydrates which hydrolysis did not give a single type of monosaccharides.
Glycosides are polymers of monosaccharides and molecule (s) not the carbohydrate Aglycone:
- O-glycosides in which an alcohol (-OH) of the aglycone involved in sacharide binding.
- N-glycosides in which an amine (-N =) of the aglycone involved in sacharide binding
- S-glycosides in which a thiol (-SH) of the aglycone involved in saccharide binding.
Carbohydrates are a class of organic molecules containing a carbonyl group (aldehyde or Ketone) and several hydroxyl groups (-OH). Carbohydrates were historically called carbohydrates. Their chemical formula is based on the model Cn (H2O) p (hence the title history). However, this model is not valid for all carbohydrates, which provide for some atoms of nitrogen or phosphorus (for example). They belong, along with proteins and lipids, essential constituents of living things and their nutrition because they are a key biological intermediate storage and consumption of energy. In Autotrophic organisms, like plants, sugars are converted into starch for storage. In heterotrophic organisms, like animals, they are stored as glycogen and used as a source of energy in metabolic reactions, they are oxidized during digestion of carbohydrates providing approximately 17 kJ / g depending on the study in the bomb calorimeter .